Business Glossary

To ensure a common understanding and consistent use, a list of definitions for terms used for each of the reports is provided.

Please let us know if there are areas where the business glossary can be improved either by emailing support@nlxp.com.au or simply use the help widget located in the bottom right hand corner to provide feedback or to request assistance.

The percentage of total road vehicles utilising the level crossing which are Class 3 and above, as defined by the Austroads 12-bin classification system, including buses.

The 85th percentile speed of all road vehicles using the crossing on each road approach (Left and Right)

Describes the type of access to the crossing, regardless of its legal status. Access can be:

  • Public - level crossing use open to the public
  • Private - level crossing use is restricted to the occupier or other people with the knowledge and agreement of the occupier

Indicates whether the primary control type at the level crossing is active or passive.

  • Active - Control of the movement of vehicular or pedestrian traffic across a level crossing by devices such as flashing signals, gates or barriers, or a combination of these, where the device is activated prior to and during the passage of rolling stock through the crossing.
  • Passive - Control of the movement of vehicular or pedestrian traffic across a level crossing by signs and devices which are not activated during the approach or passage of a train through the crossing.

Please refer to Primary control (pedestrian) or Primary control (road) for the type of active or passive control at level crossings.

An assessment tool used to identify key potential risks at level crossings and to assist in the prioritisation of level crossings for upgrades.

Please refer to the ALCAM website for further detail.

Annual average daily road vehicle traffic (AADT) using the level crossing.

A death or injury (requiring medical attention) of an employee, passenger, trespasser or member of public as a result of railway operations.

Please refer to ONRSR's Reporting Requirement for Notifiable Occurrences for full definitions of Casualty.

The type of injury or fatality in relation to a casualty, as a result of a level crossing occurrence. Casualty types are:

  • Serious Injury
  • Fatality
  • Minor Injury

Please refer to ONRSR's Reporting Requirement for Notifiable Occurrences for full definitions of Casualty types.

A component of the ALCAM risk score for road crossings, it is the expected outcome in the event of a collision at a level crossing and includes deaths and injuries in the train, vehicle and on any adjacent platforms. It is expressed in terms of equivalent fatalities per collision.

Please refer to ALCAM in Detail (2016) for further information.

The name of the local government area (or council) within whose boundary the crossing site is located.

See Level Crossing for definition

This is the common name by which the individual level crossing within a site is known and easily identified by all stakeholders or users.

Annualised average volume of trains per day at a level crossing

A performance measure that indicates the quality of the ALCAM data-set used by the NLXP, covering aspects such as completeness, timeliness and accuracy. There are over 25 data quality indicator types in the NLXP.

Refer to Scope and Methods for details.

The last date that the NLXP data was refreshed from the following source systems:

  • RegIS - ONRSR's regulatory information system, which contains level crossing occurrence data used by the NLXP
  • ALCAM - ALCAM's LXM system, which contains ontological and risk data for level crossings
  • Other - Ontological level crossing data, sourced from rail infrastructure managers [link to term] that do not use ALCAM LXM

A relative risk rating for crossings in ALCAM LXM, irrespective of primary control type or jurisdiction. There are five risk bands, ranging from Low to High. Since it is a relative ranking, there will always be 20% of crossings in each band for each control class.

Please refer to ALCAM in Detail (2016) for a further explanation on the risk bands.

A relative risk rating for crossings in ALCAM LXM of a particular primary control type, irrespective of jurisdiction. There are five risk bands for each type of control class, ranging from Low to High. Since it is a relative ranking, there will always be 20% of crossings in each band for each control class.

Please refer to Primary control (pedestrian) or Primary control (road) for control class types and ALCAM in Detail (2016) for a further explanation on the risk bands.

Global risk band [link to term] for road level crossings only.

Please refer to ALCAM in Detail (2016) for a further explanation on the risk bands.

The type of road vehicle/pedestrian protection used at the level crossing at the time of the occurrence. Involved control types are:

  • Active - lights only
  • Active - lights and boom gates
  • Passive - Give way signs
  • Passive - Stop signs
  • None

The type of road vehicle involved in an occurrence at a level crossing. Road vehicle types are:

  • Bicycle
  • Bus
  • Dangerous Goods Vehicle
  • Heavy Freight Vehicle
  • Light Passenger Vehicle
  • Motorcycle
  • Other
  • Special Purpose Machinery

Please refer to ONRSR's Reporting Requirement for Notifiable Occurrences for full definitions of road vehicle types.

The Rolling Stock Operator(s) involved in an occurrence at a level crossing.

The type of train involved in the occurrence.

Train types are:

  • Freight train
  • Non-urban Passenger train
  • Other Train
  • Rolling Stock
  • Road rail vehicle (RRV)
  • Tourist & Heritage Passenger Train
  • Track Maintenance Train
  • Tram
  • Urban Passenger Train

Please refer to ONRSR's Reporting Requirement for Notifiable Occurrences for full definitions of train types.

The state or territory in which the level crossing is situated.

A relative risk rating for crossings in ALCAM LXM for a particular jurisdiction, irrespective of primary control type. There are five risk bands, ranging from Low to High. Since it is a relative ranking, there will always be 20% of crossings in each band for each control class.

Please refer to ALCAM in Detail (2016) for a further explanation on the risk bands.

A relative risk rating for crossings in ALCAM LXM of a particular primary control type, within a particular jurisdiction. There are five risk bands for each type of control class, ranging from Low to High. Since it is a relative ranking, there will always be 20% of crossings in each band for each control class.

Please refer to Primary control (pedestrian) or Primary control (road) for control class types and ALCAM in Detail (2016) for a further explanation on the risk bands.

The date when the level crossing last had an ALCAM site survey.

Latitude co-ordinate of the level crossing location. This is typically measured from the centre of the level crossing.

This is the legal status of the Level Crossing defined by the road traffic laws within each state, independent of access type. Legal status' are:

  • Public - These are declared public roads and associated pedestrian crossings, official mid-block pedestrian crossings provided by road authority, government authority, or RIM for pedestrian access across tracks, and end-of platform pedestrian crossings for access to passenger platform.
  • Private - These provide access to private land by a landowner, service providers to that landowner, or employees of the landowner. They include occupation crossings, which are crossings at a large farms or factories where the public is not permitted or invited, but employees, contractors and suppliers may enter.
  • Illegal - Locations where vehicles or pedestrians have been crossing the rail tracks without the consent of a road authority, government authority or RIM are known as illegal crossings.
  • Unknown - The legal status of the crossing is not known.

In general terms, a level crossing is an area where a road or footpath and a railway meet at substantially the same level. A level crossing may either be a road crossing or a pedestrian crossing.

Please refer to section 4 of the Rail Safety National Law (South Australia) Act (2012) for a full and correct definition.

A register of all level crossings within scope of the NLXP, permissible for the user to access

The estimated annual probability of a collision at a road level crossing.

Please refer to ALCAM in Detail (2016) for further information.

The section of the Primary rail infrastructure managers line on which the level crossing is located.

Longitude co-ordinate of the level crossing location. This is typically measured from the centre of the level crossing.

See Level Crossing for definition

The unique identifier for the Level crossing

The ALCAM Level Crossing Management System

The maximum speed of trains through a level crossing, measured on the down approach (down track) or up approach (up track) to the level crossing

Indicates whether the level crossing is in a metropolitan or non-metropolitan area. The definition of metropolitan may differ between jurisdictions

A term used in the Rail Infrastructure Manager report to indicate level crossings managed by the Rail Infrastructure Manager organisation of the logged-in user

A term used in the Rail Infrastructure Manager report to represent all level crossings and level crossing occurrences associated with the railway network managed by the Rail Infrastructure Manager organisation of the logged-in user

A term used in the Rolling Stock Operator report to represent train movements and level crossing occurrences involving the Rolling Stock Operator organisation of the logged-in user

National Level Crossing Portal

The NLXP's unique identifier for the occurrence record.

A level crossing incident can involve multiple reportable occurrence types (e.g. a level crossing collision with a road vehicle could result in a derailment). When an incident involves multiple occurrence types, the Non top-event is any occurrence type involved, other than the Top event

Used to express level crossing occurrences and risk scores as a rate, for performance benchmarking.

Normalising units are:

  • per number of crossings managed
  • per thousand AADT movements at crossings
  • per hundred average daily train movements crossings
  • per million AADT movements x thousand average daily train movements

Please refer to section 4 of the Rail Safety National Law (South Australia) Act (2012) for a definition

The rate of reported level crossing Occurrences expressed per user-selected normalising unit. Used for performance benchmarking.

A register of all occurrences reported at level crossing sites within the scope of the NLXP, permissible for the user to access

The user-selected time interval during which level crossing occurrences reported to ONRSR under RSNL took place

The subcategory of the level crossing occurrence type.

Subcategories are:

  • Collision with person
  • Collision with road vehicle
  • Equipment Damage/Interference
  • Near Miss with Person
  • Near Miss with Road Vehicle

Please refer to ONRSR's Reporting Requirement for Notifiable Occurrences for full definitions of Occurrence type.

Office of the National Rail Safety Regulator

A term used in the Rail Infrastructure Manager report to indicate level crossings managed by Rail Infrastructure Managers other than the organisation of the logged-in user

A pedestrian crossing is a level crossing provided for the exclusive use of pedestrians, who may be people travelling on foot, by bicycle (dismounted, where required) or by mobility aid (e.g. wheelchair, scooters).

Physical controls associated with a pedestrian crossing. These are:

  • Automatic gates - Full gates which are activated by the approach of the train and prevent pedestrians from entering the crossing by imposing a barrier across the pathway.
  • Pedestrian booms - Light boom gates which are activated by the approach of the train and bar pedestrians from entering the crossing by providing a minimal physical barrier to their progress.
  • Manual gates - Gates which remain closed under normal circumstances and must be opened by the pedestrian, impose a physical cue to the presence of the crossing. These gates are not controlled or locked by the approach of a train.
  • Maze - An arrangement of fences which confines pedestrians and guides them through a path where they are forced to face in both directions up and down the track in an attempt to bring their attention to the approach of a train. A maze must have both external fencing to provide an enclosure for pedestrians and an internal fencing element which forces pedestrians to weave back and forth through it and view trains in both directions.
  • Path - A formed or paved pathway crossing the tracks which provides a defined route for pedestrians to take, and a suitable surface for them to walk on.
  • No defined path - No specific pathway is provided, and the pedestrian is forced to use a nearby road surface or climb over rails.
  • Visual alarm only - A visible alarm (commonly the red man used in pedestrian crossings at road intersections, or any other flashing light installed for the purpose) activated by the approach of a train to the crossing.
  • Audible alarm only - An audible signal activated by the approach of a train to the crossing.
  • Visual and audible alarm - Both visual and audible alarms as described above.
  • Signs only - Passive signage drawing the attention of the pedestrian to the crossing.
  • Unmarked crossing - No signage or visual or audio cues to alert a pedestrian that it is safe to cross the tracks.

The type of person in relation to a casualty, as a result of a level crossing occurrence.

Person types are:

  • Passenger
  • Public
  • Trespasser
  • Worker

Please refer to ONRSR's Reporting Requirement for Notifiable Occurrences for full definitions of person types.

The highest level of control at a pedestrian level crossing. This can be a physical control, an audio visual control or an adjacent control, as described below.

Physical controls:

  • Automatic gates - Full gates which are activated by the approach of the train and prevent pedestrians from entering the crossing by imposing a barrier across the pathway.
  • Pedestrian booms - Light boom gates which are activated by the approach of the train and bar pedestrians from entering the crossing by providing a minimal physical barrier to their progress.
  • Manual gates - Gates which remain closed under normal circumstances and must be opened by the pedestrian, impose a physical cue to the presence of the crossing. These gates are not controlled or locked by the approach of a train.
  • Maze - An arrangement of fences which confines pedestrians and guides them through a path where they are forced to face in both directions up and down the track in an attempt to bring their attention to the approach of a train. A maze must have both external fencing to provide an enclosure for pedestrians and an internal fencing element which forces pedestrians to weave back and forth through it and view trains in both directions.
  • Path - A formed or paved pathway crossing the tracks which provides a defined route for pedestrians to take, and a suitable surface for them to walk on.
  • No defined path - No specific pathway is provided, and the pedestrian is forced to use a nearby road surface or climb over rails.

Audio visual controls:

  • Visual alarm only - A visible alarm (commonly the red man used in pedestrian crossings at road intersections, or any other flashing light installed for the purpose) activated by the approach of a train to the crossing.
  • Audible alarm only - An audible signal activated by the approach of a train to the crossing.
  • Visual and audible alarm - Both visual and audible alarms as described above.
  • Signs only - Passive signage drawing the attention of the pedestrian to the crossing.
  • Unmarked crossing - No signage or visual or audio cues to alert a pedestrian that it is safe to cross the tracks.

Adjacent controls:

  • Adjacent boom gates and audio - The adjacent road crossing is equipped with flashing lights, boom gates and an audible alarm.
  • Adjacent visual and audio - The adjacent road crossing is equipped with flashing lights and an audible alarm only.
  • Adjacent boom gates and lights - The adjacent road crossing is equipped with flashing lights and boom gates only (no audible alarm).
  • Adjacent lights only - The adjacent road crossing is equipped with flashing lights only.

The main traffic control device used at a road level crossing. Road crossing control types are:

  • Half boom, flashing lights (duplicated) - Separate boom gates and flashing light assemblies for both the approach and departure carriageways at the crossing.
  • Full boom, flashing lights - Train activated flashing lights and full boom gates which are long enough to block both the entering and existing lanes.
  • Half boom, flashing lights - A flashing light and boom gate assembly blocking the approach carriageway to the crossing only.
  • Primary flashing lights (duplicated) - Flashing light only assemblies without boom gates on both the left- and-right hand sides of the road approach.
  • Primary flashing lights - Flashing light only assembly on the left-hand side of the road approach only.
  • Stop signs (duplicated) - Stop sign assemblies on both the left- and right-hand sides of the road approach.
  • Stop signs - Provides a stop sign assembly on the left-hand side of each road approach only.
  • Give way signs (duplicated) - Give way signs on both the left- and right-hand sides of the road approach.
  • Give way signs - A give way sign on the left-hand side of each road approach only
  • Position markers only - This type of control may still be in use at some crossings but is now not a recognised control in AS 1742.7
  • Rail operated gates - Gates which are manually operated by a signaller, gatekeeper, or train crew
  • No control - No controls are present at the level crossing

The main control at a level crossing site. This is the primary control at the road crossing for sites with only a road crossing or with both a road and pedestrian crossings. It is the primary control at the pedestrian crossing for sites with a pedestrian crossing only.

The main level crossing at a site. This is the road crossing at mixed or road only sites and the pedestrian crossing at pedestrian only sites.

The organisation or individual legally responsible for the management of the railway track and signalling infrastructure, either through ownership of the asset or managing that infrastructure as a lessee.

This is the organisation or individual who has the primary responsibility for the roadway and the associated approach signage.

Please refer to section 4 of the Rail Safety National Law (South Australia) Act (2012) for a definition

The rail kilometrage on the Primary rail infrastructure manager's line, where the level crossing is located.

Describes the operational status of the rail tracks at level crossings irrespective of legal status.

Rail status' within scope of the NLXP are:

  • Open - train and maintenance services are being run, either regular or seasonal
  • Dormant - no services are being run, but maintenance and inspection trains (including road-rail vehicles) may be in use. The RIM’s lease of the rail corridor remains current and ongoing.
  • Disused - no services are being run, and no rail-based maintenance or inspection is being carried out. No rail traffic is expected. Crossing related infrastructure may have been removed, although the tracks may still be in place.
  • Closed - Line is permanently out of service, with crossing related infrastructure completely removed, including the tracks.

The type of rail traffic which typically traverses the level crossing.

Rail traffic types are:

  • Freight train
  • Passenger train (locomotive hauled)
  • Passenger train (motorised unit)

The date when the level crossing was last rated in ALCAM LXM

See Rail Infrastructure Manager for definition

A measure of risk associated with a road level crossing. It is expressed in terms of the expected numbers of equivalent fatalities per year and is calculated by multiplying the Likelihood factor (road model)) and Consequence Factor (road model) for the level crossing.

Please refer to ALCAM in Detail (2016) for further details.

When the term is used on certain Benchmarking pages within the NLXP, it equates to the sum of Risk Scores for applicable level crossings.

A term used on certain Benchmarking pages within the NLXP. It is the sum of Risk Scores for applicable level crossings per selected Normalising unit.

Describes the operational status of the road or the pedestrian path crossing the rail line.

Possible status' within scope of the NLXP are:

  • Closed - Closed to both road and/or pedestrian traffic by permanent physical barriers, such as fencing and bollards. All controls have been removed.
  • Open - Open to road or pedestrian traffic.

A road crossing is a level crossing where a railway line and road intersect permitting road users to travel through the area.

The formal name of the road the level crossing intersects. If the road is not formally named or cannot be identified, then the road name is described as ‘unnamed road’.

The maximum class road vehicle type that will be using the level crossing from either the left or right approach.

Road vehicle types can be:

  • AAB Quad
  • B-Double
  • Car
  • Double road train
  • Rigid truck
  • Semi trailer
  • Triple road train

Please refer to section 4 of the Rail Safety National Law (South Australia) Act (2012) for a definition

See Rolling Stock Operator for definition

Flags used to highlight characteristics of a crossing that may lead to increased safety risk.

Possible safety flags are:

  • Advance warning - raised when the crossing characteristic ‘Distance from advance warning to crossing’ is rated average(3) or poor(5)
  • Hump, Dip or Rough surface - raised when the crossing characteristic ‘Is the crossing on a hump, dip or rough surface?’ is rated (5), i.e. the crossing is a major hump or dip
  • Less than minimal control - raised for crossings with the primary control being either Position Markers Only or No Control
  • Extreme S3 required sighting - raised where any of the four required S3 distances at the crossing is greater than 750 m.
  • High speed train - raised when the crossing characteristic ‘High train speed’ derived from the maximum train speed at the crossing is over 100kph
  • Multiple tracks - raised when the crossing characteristic 'Number of operational rail tracks’ derived from the number of operational tracks is rated (3) or (5), i.e. two or more operational tracks.
  • Non-compliance to standard - raised when the crossing characteristic ‘Conformance with Standard AS 1742.7/NZTA TCD Part 9’ is rated (5), i.e. non-conformance. Risks may be sufficiently controlled without compliance to the Standard, but the safety risk flag highlights this condition for further assessment.
  • Queuing - raised when the crossing characteristic ‘Queuing from adjacent intersections’ is rated low (3) or high (5)
  • Road condition - raised when the crossing characteristic ‘Road surface on immediate approach/departure (not Xing panel)’ is rated average (3) or poor (5)
  • Short stacking - raised when characteristic ‘Possibility of short stacking’ is rated medium (3) or high (5)
  • Sighting S1 - raised when characteristic ‘S1/SSD - advance visibility of crossing from road’ is rated other than (0), i.e. the worst SSD at the crossing is less than the calculated sight distance
  • Sighting S2 - raised when the crossing characteristic ‘72 - the minimum distance of a train from the crossing at which a driver of a road vehicle needs to be able to see an approaching train to stop in time before reaching the crossing, or be able to continue to safely clear the crossing before the arrival of a previously unseen train.
  • Sighting S3 - raised when the crossing characteristic ‘73 - the minimum distance along the track from the centre of the crossing at which a driver who is stopped at the hold position is able to see far enough along the rail track to be able to start off and safely clear the crossing before the arrival of a previously unseen train.
  • Sun glare sighting train - raised when characteristic ‘74 - Possible sun glare sighting crossing on road approach’ is rated (5)
  • Sun glare sighting crossing on road - raised when the crossing characteristic ‘75 - Possible sun glare sighting train’ is rated (5) and the crossing is controlled by Stop Signs/Stop Signs (duplicated), Give Way Signs/Give Way Signs (duplicated), Position Markers Only or No Control

A secondary organisation with legal responsibility for the management of the railway track and signalling infrastructure, either through ownership of the asset or managing that infrastructure as a lessee.

The road manager with responsibility for approach or warning signs located on side roads, if different from the Primary road manager.

The sign posted road speed at the location of the level crossing, on the left or right approach lane

A term used in the Rail Infrastructure Manager report. It represents all level crossings and level crossing occurrences associated with railway networks similar in scope and nature to the network managed by the Rail Infrastructure Manager organisation of the logged-in user.

Refer to Scope and Methods for information on how railway networks are grouped into similar categories.

A term used in the Rolling Stock Operator report. It represents all train movements and level crossing occurrences involving Rolling Stock Operators with operations similar in scope and nature to the operations undertaken by the Rolling Stock Operator organisation of the logged-in user.

Refer to Scope and Methods for information on how rolling stock operations are grouped into similar categories.

A stand-alone level crossing, or a small collection of level crossings (e.g. a main road crossing, with 1 or more associated pedestrian crossings).

A unique identifier assigned to each level crossing site. It is equivalent to the level crossing ID for the primary crossing on the site.

The common name by which the primary crossing at the site is known and easily identified by all stakeholders or users.

Describes the level crossing site based on the composition of level crossings within the site.

Site types are:

  • Road - The site comprises a road crossing only.
  • Pedestrian - The site comprises one or more pedestrian crossings only.
  • Mixed - The site comprises a road crossing and one or more pedestrian crossings.

The suburb in which the level crossing is located

A level crossing incident can involve multiple reportable occurrence types (e.g. a level crossing collision with a road vehicle could result in a derailment). When an incident involves multiple occurrence types , the Top event is the occurrence type with the greatest adverse outcome – expressed in terms of casualties, damage or the seriousness of the event.

The type of traffic that traverses the railway line(s) at a level crossing. It can either be road or pedestrian.

The common identification of the rolling stock (the train number) involved in the level crossing occurrence.

A term used in the Rolling Stock Operator report to represent supersets of involved train types. Train type groupings are:

  • Passenger - composed of urban passenger train, non-urban passenger train, tourist & heritage passenger train, and tram
  • Freight - composed of freight train only
  • Maintenance train / vehicle - composed of track maintenance train and road rail vehicle (RRV)
  • Other - composed of rolling stock and other train